ALLAH CREATED THE UNIVERSE
Many different theories have been posited
to explain the universe's creation. Some people, who disregarded
the scientific evidence about the beginnings of the universe,
suggested that matter has always existed. One hypothesis put forward
to support this view is the "Steady-state Hypothesis." Comprehensive
and long research has revealed strong evidence that the universe
has a beginning. The Steady-state hypothesis, on the other hand,
has become a distant memory in the history of science.
Data shows that the universe came into being from nothing. Accordingly,
the universe has an explosive beginning: the "Big Bang." Before
that, there was nothing: no matter, energy, space, time, or a
universe. As a consequence of an explosion of an infinitely
dense, zero volume point, matter was blasted out at an incredible
speed in all directions, forming stars, planets and other heavenly
bodies. The universe expanded, inflated, grew rapidly, and, over
time, cooled and assumed its present shape.
At the present time, most books on cosmology, science journals,
and articles on the subject, as well as supporting evidence, assert
that the universe began with a Big Bang and therefore has a certain
age. As it is impossible to squeeze all of this written material
into a few lines, we will provide one or two examples.
Professor George O. Abell (University of California) states that
although the steady-state universe appeals to materialists, it
has to be abandoned in the face of new evidence:
The steady-state universe is infinite
and eternal and has much philosophical appeal. But we have already
seen that certain objects, especially quasars, change as the
universe ages, which violates the perfect cosmological principle.
Moreover, we shall see subsequently that there is direct evidence
that the universe has evolved from a hot, dense state, strongly
supporting the idea of a big bang.3
When American scientists
announced the discovery of radiation patterns in space that may
mark the beginning of time itself, astrophysicist George Smoot,
leader of the research team said: "What we have found is evidence
for the birth of the universe—It's like looking at God. The order
is so beautiful and the symmetry so beautiful that you think there
is some design behind it."4
Somewhere else, he added: "It is a mystical experience, like
a religious experience. It really is like finding the driving
mechanism for the universe."5
Given that the universe has a beginning, it has to have been made
from nothing. In other words, it was created. If there was a creation,
there has to be a creator. This universe was created without a
preceding model and even before time and space existed. The most
crucial fact discovered by this theory is that the universe has
a beginning and an absolute and all-powerful creator. Allah created
The Big Bang is the first movement that we can calculate in the
universe. Every single move and event since that moment has happened
by Allah's will and under His control. It is unacceptable as well
as irrational to assume that matter dispersed by an unconscious
explosion could form, by itself, such a galactic order, star systems,
and the solar system to which our planet belongs. Everything that
can be observed in the environment, including one's own body,
has been created in an infinite order within Allah's control and
knowledge. The Qur'an reveals that He first created the heavens,
then Earth, and finally living beings.
Allah created the universe with a very delicate balance and order.
Countless factors are interlinked with one another, from the proportion
of the atmosphere's different gases to Earth's surface temperature,
from the speed of rainfall to the iron content of Earth's core.
The force of gravity, which keeps all of the stars and planets
in their respective orbits, is another example of this. All matter
in the universe is subject to gravitational forces, according
to its size. Earth's gravitational force holds the oceans and
everything else, including living beings, firmly on Earth's surface.
This way, people and other creatures, as well as oceans and mountains,
do not fall into the void of space. Earth's mass is of crucial
importance here: If its mass had been slightly larger, it would
have exerted a greater pull on everything on the planet's surface.
Consequently, groundwater would have receded, people would have
been unable to walk, water could not have reached the tree branch's
leaves, vegetation would have disappeared, and blood circulation
would have become dysfunctional and concentrated the blood in
the feet. All of these and similar examples prove that Earth's
mass is adjusted in such a way to sustain its ecological systems
and life forms.
Scientists investigating the universe's eventual end believe that
everything is in the process of decaying, and that the universe's
end will be a result of this decay. They suggest that even one
unstable proton could cause this event, and warn of this great
Cosmic entropy, if it is real,
will continue for centuries but when it happens, nothing will
remain, no stars, people, poems, atoms or memories…
After pointing out this fact, our attention is drawn to
the real danger:
Not one research project and not one experiment ever undertaken
has been able to prove the disappearance of a single proton.
However, this has not discouraged scientists from continuing
to research in this field. For scientists to witness a proton
decay would mean that the universe is face to face with the
threat of annihilation. The obliteration of even just one proton
means that everything in the universe is decaying, The decay
of a single proton would demonstrate that all protons decay
and that therefore atoms, molecules, and DNA could not be formed.6
These few examples are enough to prove that the universe
was created by a superior power, who gave it a great order and
balance. Our all-powerful Lord protects and watches over this
faultless order, for:
Allah keeps a firm hold on the heavens
and Earth, preventing them from vanishing away. And if they vanished,
no one could then keep hold of them. Certainly He is Most Forbearing,
Ever-Forgiving. (Surah Fatir, 41)
Allah reveals in the Qur'an that everything in the
universe will end. It is obvious that Allah, Who created and sustains
this universe, can destroy it whenever He wills. On this great
Final Day, all existing orders will cease, and everything that
people admired, investigated and incessantly tried to comprehend
will be turned on its head, for:
His command when He desires a thing
is just to say to it, "Be!" and it is. Glory be to Him Who has
the Dominion of all things in His Hand. To Him you will be returned.
(Surah Ya Sin, 82-83)
THE UNIVERSE'S EVENTUAL DESTRUCTION
Our world is surrounded by deadly threats. Surprisingly,
even though we know of such dangers, many of us live as if no
life-threatening danger faces the universe and as if our lives
were guaranteed. Many of us do not reflect upon death or what
comes after death.
Our world is on a long journey in an endless space. In reality,
the factors making this journey possible are more numerous than
anticipated. Earth faces many dangers on this journey: from comets
to falling stars, from black holes to supernova explosions. It
must stay in its orbit around the Sun, revolving at a constant
speed on its axis, following a spiral path at the required angle
to the Sun, and maintain all of the prevailing balances in its
systems for life to be possible on it
However, there is no reason why external dangers should
not destroy these balances. Scientists, who point out these dangers
at every opportunity, agree that Earth could face such dangers
at any time. As Professor Carl Sagan says:
The earth is a lovely and more
or less placid place. Things change but slowly. We can lead
a full life and never personally encounter a natural disaster
more violent than a storm. And so we become complacent, relaxed,
unconcerned. But in the history of Nature, the record is clear.
Worlds have been devastated. Even we humans have achieved the
dubious technical distinction of being able to make our own
disasters, both intentional and inadvertent. On the landscapes
of other planets where the records of the past have been preserved,
there is abundant evidence of major catastrophes. It is all
a matter of time scale. An event that would be unthinkable in
a hundred years may be inevitable in a hundred million. Even
on Earth, even in our own century, bizarre natural events have
It would not be surprising to see the universe destroyed
by some of the things mentioned earlier. Maybe all of the things
Allah says will happen on the Day of Judgment will happen because
Earth's equilibrium will be damaged. No doubt, damaging the faultlessly
functioning order could cause many catastrophes, and maybe, the
Last Day, which people consider unlikely or far in the future,
is just round the corner.
THE PROBABLE CAUSES OF EARTH'S
The countless factors that enable our world to continue
its existence must be present at the same time and in the same
way as they are. Many scientists are studying how to preserve
these natural balances. A small example: Scientists and environmentalists
predict that it will not be possible to reduce the economic and
environmental damage caused by the consumption of such fossil
fuels as oil and coal.8 Experts in the field
say that the following disaster scenarios will be caused by the
escalating consumption of fossil fuels in the very near future:
1. The deltas of the world's greatest
rivers, like the Ganges or the Nile, will be flooded and lost,
and one-quarter of Bangladesh's territory, together with all
of China's deltas, will be underwater.
2. The Maldives and other islands and island states will be
3. Great areas of fertile countries (e.g., the US Midwest, Europe,
and Kazakhstan) will become deserts, and Turkey will resemble
4. The frozen landmasses of Siberia and Canada will partially
defrost, causing the destruction of pipelines, rail tracks,
5. One-third of all forests will be destroyed. Due to this reduced
amount of vegetation, the lungs of our world, the proportion
of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will increase. This will
fuel the global warming process and lead to various epidemic
6. In tropical areas, typhoons, cyclones, and other natural
disasters will occur more often. Such currents as the Gulf Stream
and El Niño in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans will alter their
courses and turn the climatic conditions on land as well as
the sea upside down.
7. In Texas and along Europe's Mediterranean coastline, such
infectious diseases as malaria will become epidemic.
8. One-quarter of all glaciers and permanent ice in the Alps
and the Himalayas will melt. The resulting waters will flood
many coastline towns, and many island states will be submerged.
The estimated 100 million people living in the affected areas
will either die or become homeless migrants.9
All of the above dangers have been
predicted by scientific research. Once Earth begins this process,
only Allah will be able to stop it. The 25 percent increase in
carbon dioxide in 1997 alone increased the greenhouse effect,
which caused the following events: parts of polar glaciers melted,
icebergs melted and raised the oceans' water levels, colder winters
than usual, extreme rainfall, and devastating hurricanes and floods.
The hole in the ozone layer exposed Earth to harmful radiation
from space, increased cancer rates, caused new illnesses to be
identified and diagnosed, and revealed degenerative developments
in plant life. American scientists and Greenpeace activists discovered
during their research in Alaska that the Bering Glacier
has shrunk by 12 kms (7.5 miles) in length and 130 m2 (155 square
yards) in size.10
The ocean's water temperature increased by 0.8 degrees; corals,
which play a vital role in the ecosystem's balance, began to die;
and 80 percent of the plankton was destroyed.11
Over the last few centuries, many new probable causes for the
world's end have emerged, and their number continues to increase
every day. Our planet's current situation contains a strong message:
Earth's end is a certainty, and its time is approaching. Physicists,
in particular, frequently express their concerns about this, as
If the universe has a finite
stock of order, and is changing irreversibly towards disorder—ultimately
to thermodynamic equilibrium—two very deep inferences follow
immediately. The first is that the universe will eventually
die, wallowing, as it were, in its own entropy. This is known
among physicists as the "heat death" of the universe. The second
is that the universe cannot have existed for ever, otherwise
it would have reached its equilibrium end state an infinite
time ago. Conclusion: the universe did not always exist.12
It is surprising that so many people continue to
live without considering their own end and being in awe of Allah,
and remain totally absorbed by their worldly lives despite the
proximity of death. And, it is even more surprising that most
people, when reminded of death and the ensuing hardships, consider
it a distant possibility. As they reject the Qur'an outright,
its descriptions of the Day of Judgment have no meaning for them.
They behave as if they will live forever, and so endanger the
eternal life for the sake of a temporary life. Death, which people
try to avoid at all costs, will find all of them, for neither
humanity nor the universe can avoid or prevent death. The Qur'an
reveals this reality, as follows:
Say: "Death, from which you are fleeing,
will certainly catch up with you. Then you will be returned to
the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible, and He will inform you
about what you did." (Surat al-Jumu‘a, 8)
Given that Earth's destruction is a physical fact
rather than a belief, the factors that will contribute to its
end reveal themselves in the light of scientific discoveries.
Even people who do not believe in Allah or any other religion
must acknowledge that the universe is approaching its inevitable
end. Hence, a new reality besides belief in the Day of Judgment
and the Hereafter emerges. This is a frightening reality, because
it means endless nothingness. The signs of the approaching Last
Day leave people with a number of options: Some unbelievers see
it is an endless nothingness, whereas believers see it is either
eternal pleasure or eternal suffering…
THE END OF THE UNIVERSE:THE
CLOSED UNIVERSE AND OPEN UNIVERSE MODELS
Scientists agree that the Big Bang theory is irrefutable and wholly
based on scientific data. Accordingly, the universe was born out
of the sudden explosion of an infinitely dense point and its subsequent
rapid expansion and growth in space. Over time, it began to cool
and assumed its current shape.
So, for how long will this expansion continue? The greater an
object's mass, the greater its gravitational force—to the extent
that the gravitational force will overwhelm the rate of expansion.
However, if the gravitational force is smaller, expansion cannot
be prevented. According to scientists, if the universe's mass
exceeds a certain limit, the expansion will cease one day and
the universe will collapse back in on itself. This is the closed
universe model. But if its mass is below this limit, the gravitational
forces will be unable to overcome expansion and so it will continue
to expand infinitely. This is the open universe model.
The universe will either close and end, or expand until it is
exhausted and then end, unless Allah causes it to end in another
way. In order to predict by which model the universe will die,
we need to know its total mass.
As determining this is very difficult, scientists have tried to
measure its density rather than its mass, because if the density
reaches a critical point, its gravity may overcome the expansion
of galaxies. Thus, the universe would begin to collapse by sucking
in all of the galaxies. But if its density does not reach this
critical value, the expansion will continue forever, because gravity
cannot overcome the the galaxies' expansion. Scientists setting
out from this premise undertook to discover the end of the universe.
They conducted many experiments and spent endless hours analyzing
light from distant galaxies through telescopes.
The speed of galactic systems was measured; their size, intensity,
and distance were calculated; and the universe's real density
was researched. The emerging data confirms that the universe's
present density is close to critical density. In other words,
it is more probable that the universe is closed. Once the data
obtained by the American scientists Edwin Loh and Earl Spillar—research
that is based on the study of thousands of galaxies—was added
to the existing data in 1986, the probability of the universe
being closed reached 90 percent.
Furthermore, several factors were disregarded
while calculating the universe's density, which led to the 90
percent figure. For instance, black holes were not taken into
account. If they had been, the density value would have increased
by a certain amount. Once the dark matters' density—present in
all galaxies—is added to the equation, the emerging picture shows
that the universe will cease to expand and collapse within itself.
Dr. John Gribbin, a well-known physicist and science writer, also
stated that the evidence for the closed universe model has never
been so strong.13
Phrasing it differently, the universe has reached a critical point
and is ready to implode at any time. Allah reveals that one day
He will return the universe to its original state, as follows:
That Day We will fold up Heaven
like folding up the pages of a book. As We originated the first
creation so shall We bring it back again. It is a promise binding
on Us. That is what We will do. (Surat al-Anbiya', 104)
It is highly probable that this verse indicates the
closed universe model. What we have related here shows that scientific
data implies that the universe is likely to implode. Moreover,
the guardians of materialist ideologies can posit no serious counterclaim
in the face of such research results.
Dr. Scherman, dean of the University of Chicago's
astronomy department, says that whereas the closed universe idea
used to be represented chiefly by religion and philosophy, there
is now much experimental as well as theoretical evidence that
proves its correctness.14
Our universe has been expanding for 15 billion years, but according
to the obtained results and at the time when Allah wills, gravity
probably will overcome expansion and bring it to a close. Once
gravity becomes the dominant force in a closed and extremely dense
universe, everything will begin to implode and be reversed, for
all that had until then been cooling and expanding will contract
and heat up. As a result, all of the galaxies will be rapidly
brought closer to one another.
According this model, gravity will end the universe's expansion
and cause the galaxies to move toward one another at escalating
speeds. Devastating collisions will take place; huge stars will
collide and fuse. The Moon, the Sun, and Earth, as well as all
other stars and planets, will fuse, and at the end of this process
the imploding universe will be concentrated in one point and destroyed.
The whole universe will be turned upside down. Given that a small
deviation in Earth's orbit would lead to either the burning up
or freezing to death of all living beings, that a small hole in
the atmosphere can have devastating effects, and that a change
to the 23o 27' angle of Earth's axis would prevent
the seasons, it is not difficult to estimate the negative effect
of the universe's contraction on the precarious balances upon
which its order rests.
Allah reveals that the Sun and the Moon will be fused together
on the Day of Judgment. Perhaps these verses indicate the closed
universe model. If contraction occurs, the world, our solar system's
other planets and stars, as well as the Sun and the Moon, will
The Qur'an also reveals that the stars will fall from their places
in the heavens in rapid succession (Surat at-Takwir, 2). This
verse could indicate a closed universe model, because in this
scenario the stars will leave their orbit and collide. In a contracting
universe, time will move backwards, and so there could be similarities
between the events taking place at that time on Earth and the
events that occur when entering a black hole. As with everything
else, gravitational forces will be reversed, Earth will disgorge
its charges and be shaken, the mountains will be pulverized, and
the oceans will overflow. We do not know how long this process
will last, but these events will take place as Allah describes
them in the Qur'an.
We can summarize this as follows: If the closed universe
model is true, the universe will merge in one point and be extinguished
However, this does not mean that the
expanding universe model will save the universe from destruction.
If this scenario is true, it simply means that the universe will
be destroyed in another way. Ever since it was created, the universe's
density has continued to increase, and its temperature nearly
reached absolute zero. The presently prevailing temperature in
space is -270oC—only 3 degrees warmer than absolute
As long as the expansion continues, the universe's
temperature will continue to decrease. A temperature of -270oC
is the most suitable for life to exist.16
Even minor fluctuations will doom all life to death. This temperature
cannot remain constant in an expanding universe. So, when it falls,
humanity and all other living parts of creation will die.
Confirmed findings of recent research suggest that the closed
universe model is applicable. Although uncertain of exactly which
model it might be, scientists agree that the fate of the universe
will be the same: In both models the universe dies, albeit in
different ways. As we have explained above, both models lead to
the Last Day. However, there are other factors that can bring
about the universe's end, such as the Sun's completion of its
life cycle. Allah knows best.
THE SUN COMPLETES ITS LIFE-CYCLE
Stars are born, live for a certain period of time, and then die.
Our Sun has a limited lifetime. Before the universe meets its
end, the Sun might have completed its life cycle, which, in turn,
means that Earth will have to die as well.
The Sun is an estimated 5 billion years old. Every
second, it converts 564 million tons of hydrogen into 560 million
tons of helium.17 The remaining 4
million tons of matter is converted into energy. When it reaches
the phase in which it will burn up and use up its hydrogen, Earth's
end will have come. At this stage, the abundant hydrogen in the
Sun's core will be replaced by helium, and the core's temperature
will increase from its present 20 million degrees to 100 million
degrees Centigrade. While the Sun's core overheats, its outer
layers will expand and its color will take on a red hue instead
of its usual yellow. In this way, the Sun will become a "red giant."
Scientists make the following predictions: The Sun, so vital for
earthly life, will bloat and expand in space; our solar system's
planets will catch fire; and those small planets near to it will
be destroyed. Despite the Sun's outer temperature remaining the
same, nearby planets will be greatly affected by its heat radiation,
which is caused by its increased volume. First Mercury and then
Venus will burn up.
The continuation of life on Earth depends on the
preservation of the universe's many existing balances. For instance,
if Earth were to come a little closer to the Sun, all life on
it would die. Thus, Earth will be greatly affected by the expanding
Sun way before its outer fringes reach it. By the time Mercury
and Venus are engulfed in flames, all of Earth's natural conditions
will have been destroyed and all life on it will have been destroyed.
In a very short time, the extreme heat will evaporate the oceans
and melt the rocks and mountains, which soon will become gases.
In a moment, the planet will burn up and become a handful of ash
scattered across the universe. Scientists reached this conclusion
after studying stars that have a similar size to our own Sun.
Many distant stars are becoming "red giants," which cause many
extraordinary events in the universe.18
When the giant Sun uses up its fuel, it will no longer be able
to support the weight of its inner layers, and they will begin
to collapse toward the core, eventually producing a small, dense,
cool star called a white dwarf. After it becomes a white dwarf,
it will cool slowly for billions of years, eventually becoming
so cool that it will no longer emit light.
Professor of Theoretical Physics and renowned science writer Paul
Davies expresses his concerns about the Sun's decreasing energy
levels in the following way:
As far as the sun is concerned,
it clearly cannot continue burning away merrily ad infinitum.
Year by year its fuel reserves decline, so that eventually it
will cool and dim. By the same token its fires must have been
ignited only a finite time ago: it does not have unlimited sources
As a natural consequence of this process, the disaster
issuing from the Sun is unavoidable. In addition, research reveals
many other factors that could destroy Earth.
The universe contains millions of moving large and small meteors.
The consequences of a collision between these and a planet vary,
according to the mass of the meteor involved.
Scientists estimate that 1,000 tons
to more than 10,000 tons of meteoritic material falls on the Earth
each day. However, most of this material is very tiny—in the form
of micrometeoroids or dust-like grains a few micrometers in size.20 And most of the
rest is reduced to ash partly because of the friction they encounter
upon entering the atmosphere. In other words, Earth's atmosphere
protects us from possible catastrophes day after day. Somewhat
distressingly, however, some meteors are large enough to destroy
all life on Earth. Scientists have shown that meteor strikes in
Earth's past have altered its geological and ecological landscape
One meteorite, estimated to
have a diameter of 60 kms (37 miles), exploded in the atmosphere
above Tunguska in Siberia in 1908 and destroyed some 2,000 km2
(770 square miles) of forest. Its explosive force was 1,000
times more powerful than the atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
Fortunately, it exploded above a largely uninhabited area. If
it had exploded above the Eiffel tower, it probably would have
killed over 10 million people.21
This event brought home to people the great threat
of catastrophic natural disasters. This is how it happened:
In the early morning hours of
June 30, 1908, in Central Siberia, a giant fireball was seen
moving rapidly across the sky. Where it touched the horizon,
an enormous explosion took place. It leveled some 2,000 square
kilometers [770 square miles] of forest and burned thousands
of trees in a flash fire near the impact site. It produced an
atmospheric shock wave that twice circled the Earth. For two
days afterward, there was so much fine dust in the atmosphere
that one could read a newspaper at night by scattered light
in the streets of London, 10,000 kilometers [6,200 miles] away.22
Eyewitnesses can give us clues about other potential
I was sitting on the porch of
the house at the trading station of Vanovara at breakfast time
and looking towards the north. I just raised my axe to hoop
a cask, when suddenly... the sky was split in two, and high
above the forest the whole northern part of the sky appeared
to be covered with fire. At the moment I felt a great heat,
as if my shirt had caught fire... I wanted to pull off my shirt
and throw it away, but at that moment there was a bang in the
sky, and a mighty crash was heard. I was thrown on the ground
about three sajenes [about 7 meters or 23 feet] away from the
porch and for a moment I lost consciousness. My wife ran out
and carried me into the hut. The crash was followed by a noise
like stones falling from the sky, or guns firing. The Earth
trembled, and when I lay on the ground I covered my head, because
I was afraid that stones might hit it. At that moment when the
sky opened, a hot wind, as from a cannon, blew past the huts
from the north. It left its mark on the ground...23
We do not know from where the next meteor might come
According to scientists, every 2 centuries a meteor the size of
the Tunguska one collides with Earth, a fact that illustrates
the proximity of such disasters. There is no reason why the next
impact should not occur on a densely populated area. At present,
scientists are very concerned about such an impact's potential
If such an impact occurred today
it might be mistaken, especially in the panic of the moment,
for a nuclear explosion. The cometary impact and fireball would
simulate all effects of a one-megaton nuclear burst, including
the mushroom cloud, with two exceptions: there would be no gamma
radiation or radioactive fallout.24
The impact of such a massive object on a large city
could kill millions of people. If it fell in the ocean, it would
still be devastatingly dangerous, for its velocity and mass would
create tidal waves that would destroy the shoreline's populated
areas. Furthermore, the likelihood of much larger meteors colliding
with Earth is highly probable and gives food for thought. Scientists
consider such an event inevitable, and say that it would be able
to destroy whole continents and fill the atmosphere with toxic
gases. They also readily admit that they are still fervently looking
for a solution.
ASTEROIDS AND COMETS
Scientist state that the probability of a collision
between Earth and some of the known asteroids increases by the
day. Duncan Smith, reader in space technology at the University
of Salford said scientists had identified more than a thousand
asteroids, of various dimensions, that have orbits around the
Sun that cross the path of the Earth. Scientists say that big
asteroids have hit Earth before and it is only a matter of time
before one strikes the Earth again.25
Each year, many fragments of debris hit our planet, but most of
them are so small that they burn up harmlessly in the atmosphere,
unnoticed by us. However, some of this material is larger than
what the atmosphere can handle.
Geologist Walter Alvarez lists the probable events of a comet
(shooting star) entering Earth's atmosphere in his book T-Rex
and the Crater of Doom where he describes the world 65 million
Doom was coming out of the sky,
in the form of an enormous comet or asteroid—we are still not
sure which it was. Probably ten kilometers across, traveling
tens of kilometers a second, its energy of motion had the destructive
capability of a hundred million hydrogen bombs. If an asteroid,
it was an inert, crater-scarred rock, dark and sinister, invisible
until the last moment before it struck. If a comet, it was a
ball of dirty ice, spewing out gases boiled off by the heat
of the Sun, and it announced impending doom with a shimmering
head and a brilliant tail splashed across half the sky, illuminating
the night, and finally visible even in the daytime as Armageddon
Scientists believe that a very large celestial body
(most probably a comet) collided with Earth 65 million years ago
and marked it considerably. Based on this experience and subsequent
collisions, it is possible to predict the events following such
an impact and the probable consequences for our planet.
The potential energy of a comet before impact is equivalent to
100 billion megatons of TNT, which will cause it to evaporate
in seconds and can leave a crater 40 kms (25 miles) deep. In comparison,
a hydrogen bomb has the force of 1 megaton of TNT. At the height
of the cold war, there were 10,000 such weapons. On the other
hand, a comet's potential force is 10 million times greater than
the force of all of the explosives that existed at that time.
The Qur'an reveals that on the Day of Judgment there will be shocking
tremors, that everything will be leveled, and that the oceans
will boil over. A collision with a comet or an asteroid could
cause all of these disasters. Massive seismic waves would disturb
the ocean beds, causing landslides and huge tidal waves. Scientists
remark that previous tidal waves caused in this way were of such
a magnitude that they left their marks on the ocean bed.
Recent research reveals that a large
object that fell into the Gulf of Mexico created large-scale tidal
waves headed for Florida. While traveling toward their destination,
they grew even larger and endangered the coast. They eventually
destroyed large areas of forest. Although many people live as
if their death and the Day of Judgment will never come, there
is no reason why such a catastrophe should not occur. For instance,
one day before the above catastrophe occurred, the soil covering
great swathes of America and Mexico were fertile; soon after it
struck, however, all of it was rendered useless.27
Fourteen centuries ago, Allah revealed that on the Day of Judgment
the sky will split apart (Surat al-Haqqa, 16) and will be like
molten brass (Surat al-Ma‘arij, 8). This scenario resembles the
effects of a comet or a large meteor colliding with Earth.
Paul Davies, in his book The Last Three Minutes, says that a comet
on a collision course with Earth will emit such an intense light
that the atmosphere will begin to burn up from above and melt
like metal. He also states that the escaping gases in the vacuum
of space will create a tornado. These statements are quite similar
to what the Qur'an says, as follows:
When Heaven is split apart and goes
rose-red, like dregs of oil. (Surat ar-Rahman, 37)
The melting and running of the heavens like molten
brass or dregs of oil is reminiscent of a hot, thick-flowing liquid.
In such a case, the skies would take on a red-hot color. As Davies
states, on that Day the superheated gases could form tornados,
and the resemblance thereof to a red rose is obvious.
Allah will bring the Day of Judgment at a predetermined time and
fulfill His promises. These events may take place one by one,
or all at once. Similar things have happened before, for both
asteroids and comets have caused localized and, at other times,
widespread, damage. Only Allah knows the time of the next one.
Scientists predict that an asteroid will come close
to Earth in 2028. According to them, if it falls into the Atlantic
Ocean, America and Europe will be submerged; if it falls onto
land, it will be far more destructive. Asteroids entering the
atmosphere would cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, the
dust of which would veil Earth in darkness. Astronomers point
out that even the proximity of such a comet would pose a great
danger to Earth.28
Scientists refer to the Swift-Tuttle comet, which passed close
by in 1993 and is expected to return in 2126. Calculations suggest
a high probability of a collision, as it is expected to pass by
at 2 weeks' distance—a close encounter indeed—and many scientists
are genuinely concerned and worried about such a near miss. The
inconsistent orbits of these objects create a continuous traffic,
which means that Earth and other planets are constantly at risk.
According to experts, Swift-Tuttle or some other object eventually
will collide with Earth. Some of them could cause greater devastation
than all of humanity's nuclear weapons combined. We just do not
know when this will happen.
Davies says "when it does, it will be
bad news for people. There will be an abrupt and unprecedented
interruption in the history of our species." He says that a collision
would almost certainly spell the end for humanity.29
He deals extensively with this subject in his book The Last Three
Minutes, in which he states that on the 21st of August 2126, Swift-Tuttle
will strike Earth and thereby usher in our planet's final day.
There is a great similarity between what he relates and what Allah
reveals, as follows:
The date: August 21, 2126.
The place: Earth.
… The diminutive head of the comet belies its enormous destructive
power. It is closing on planet Earth at a staggering 40,000
miles per hour, 10 miles every second—a trillion tons of ice
and rock, destined to strike at seventy times the speed of sound.
… Directly above ground zero, the sky splits open. A thousand
cubic miles of air are blasted aside. A finger of searing flame
wider than a city arcs groundward and fifteen seconds later
lances the Earth. The planet shudders with the force of ten
thousand earthquakes. A shock wave of displaced air sweeps over
the surface of the globe, flattening all structures, pulverizing
everything in its path. The flat terrain around the impact site
rises in a ring of liquid mountains several miles high, exposing
the bowels of the Earth in a crater a hundred miles across.
The wall of molten rock ripples outward, tossing the landscape
about like a blanket flicked in slow motion...
Within the crater itself, trillions of tons of rock are vaporized.
Much more is splashed aloft, some of it flung out into space.
Still more is pitched across half a continent to rain down hundreds
or even thousands of miles away, wreaking massive destruction
on all beneath. Some of the molten ejecta falls into the ocean,
raising huge tsunamis that add to the spreading turmoil. A vast
column of dusty debris fans out into the atmosphere, blotting
out the sun across the whole planet. Now the sunlight is replaced
by the sinister, flickering glare of a billion meteors, roasting
the ground below with their searing heat, as displaced material
plunges back from space into the atmosphere.30
No doubt, this description is not farfetched. Just
one comet can cause such damage, but we do not know when it will
collide with Earth. Regardless of how much people try to deny
the existence of the Day of Judgment, it can confront them as
a possibility that is closer than they think, for the Qur'an reveals
The Unseen of the heavens and Earth
belongs to Allah. The matter of the Hour is only the blink of
an eye away, or even nearer. Allah has power over all things.
(Surat an-Nahl, 77)
At present, scientists believe that black holes of enormous mass
exist in the center of many galaxies. Their massive gravitational
force swallows its own radiation and everything else that comes
within its vicinity, an action that only further increases their
size and gravitational force. They can pull in stars many times
their own size, planets, smaller black holes, and even whole galaxies.
As our planet travels rapidly in the endless void of space, one
day it might enter the gravitational zone of a black hole.
Black holes are a most dense phenomenon that pulls in everything.
Their gravitational force is so strong that nothing in its path
can escape it. Just like a vacuum cleaner, black holes suck in
everything in their gravitational spectrum: planets, satellites,
asteroids, and even stars. Once they enter this field of gravity,
they cannot escape.
Why do black holes suck in everything?
As we know, every object exerts a certain gravitational force.
For example, if we throw a stone into the sky, it will go up until
it exhausts its velocity and then falls to the ground by the force
of gravity. For an object to escape Earth's gravity, it needs
to exceed a certain speed in one direction (velocity). If a rocket
is to break free of Earth's gravity, it must reach a velocity
that can overcome gravity: 11.2 kms (7 miles) per second.
To escape a black hole, the object must travel faster than the
speed of light. However, since nothing can exceed the speed of
light, nothing can escape a black hole's gravity, not even bundles
of light traveling at a speed of 300,000 kms (190,000 miles) per
second. Since not even light can escape, black holes are always
dark. There is no reason why our planet, traveling at high speeds
through space, should not enter a black hole's gravitational field.
In fact, scientists in America have disclosed the existence of
two active black holes in the center of our galaxy, each of which
can swallow up millions of stars larger than our Sun.
The American Astronomers Association
recently published a scientific report in which it says that one
of the black holes is right in the center of our galaxy, just
26,000 light years away from Earth (one light year is almost 9.5
trillion kilometers, or nearly six trillion miles). It is called
"Sagittarius A" or "A-Star,"31
and is as large as our solar system but has a mass millions of
times higher. Based upon calculations, its mass is 2.6 billions
times that of the Sun and it sucks in stars at a speed of 965
kms (600 miles) per second. This is no doubt a serious discovery
and poses a great danger to our planet.
The other black hole, "Old Faithful," is spherical in shape, is
much larger, and is 40,000 light years away. It resembles an insatiable
monster that swallows up all stars within its reach.
The fact that A-Star swallows up the stars in its environment
at a speed of 965 kms (600 miles) per second shows that its gravitational
force increases with every star it swallows. Therefore, at the
end of this process, the escalating speed with which it draws
objects to itself will reach an incredible magnitude.
As black holes swallow up light, they cannot be seen or perceived
even by the most highly developed telescopes and other technology.
Therefore, scientists must determine their existence through research
and measurement. By using such tools, scientists have already
proven the existence of several black holes. However, there is
a strong probability that many more have not yet been discovered
yet, as the current level of research is insufficient.
Many scientists believe that our Sun has a twin, which likely
became a black hole. The reasoning behind this assumption is that
all other stars in our solar system exist in groups of twos, threes,
and fives, except for our Sun. The supporting evidence is considerable
and is being analyzed. Considering that the Sun is only 150 million
kms (93 million miles) away from Earth, the potential danger is
undeniable. In short, there is no reason why Earth should not
fall into a black hole's gravitational field at any given moment.
Many scientists believe that a black hole will annihilate Earth
by swallowing it. Even if Earth avoids this end, there is a great
danger of a black hole's passing by our solar system. And, what
would happen if a black hole quietly approached our solar system?
Such an event could alter the orbits of many planets, which of
course would affect Earth's balance. Hundreds and even thousands
of asteroids could be affected by such a gravitational force.
Many would be sucked in by the black hole, and hundreds or thousands
of them would fall on Earth.
There are an estimated 200 other galaxies besides our own in the
universe, each of which consists of 200 billion stars, revolves
around its own axis, and follows an orbit. Our galaxy is traveling
at a high speed in the direction of an imaginary point called
the Solar Apex near the bright star Vega. Due to all of this movement
in the universe, collisions and huge explosions occur. But because
they happen millions of light years away, we do not notice them.
For instance, the Hubble telescope took pictures of two galaxies
colliding some 63 million light years away. As a result of this
event, new stars were born and massive hydrogen clouds were formed
and released into space. If such a collision were to take place
near Earth, it could become one of the factors that would destroy
Furthermore, scientists state that such an end probably awaits
our solar system. One such disclosure is the following:
Astrophysicists speak of serious
problems the Earth will have in the near future. The first of
these is a supernova explosion (a supernova: a star that explodes
and becomes extremely luminous in the process). Even if the
time and location of this explosion is unknown, predictions
put forward are looking at the near future and they are not
very encouraging. According to scientists, the reddish supergiant
Betelgeuse star at a distance of 430 light years, appears ready
to explode. They reckon that hypernovas are created by the fusion
of black holes or by the merger of black holes with neutron
stars. But none of them knows how these time bombs are distributed
in space or what would happen to us if they were to come near
The Qur'an reveals that on that Day, Earth will be
rocked by devastating tremors; that people will experience pure
terror; that the Sun, the Moon, and stars will be extinguished;
and that everything will be destroyed rapidly. A collision could
cause all of these events, and would affect not only Earth but
our entire solar system as well.
Scientific research reveals that the promised Day of Judgment
will definitely come, that all living and non-living things and
Earth too will be destroyed, and that Allah will create a new
sky and a different world. All of this is related to point out
that Earth can also die by natural causes. However, there is no
doubt that Allah does not require a cause to do such things and
that if Allah wills it, he can make the Day of Judgment happen
at any time and even without the need for a collision or an explosion.
The probabilities we have examined here are only a few of the
possible ways for life to be destroyed. Moreover, scientific research
confirms that such an event is a realistic expectation.
The universe's continued expansion is another probable cause for
Earth to die. People are untouched by such concerns, because they
see them as very distant possibilities or simply prefer to let
future generations deal with them. However, there are even greater
risks, and only Allah knows which one will bring about the Day
of Judgment. Regardless of how remote a possibility seems to people,
research and an increase in catastrophic events suggests that
such a day is approaching. And only Allah knows when this will
He created the heavens and Earth with
truth. The day He says "Be!" it is. His speech is Truth. The Kingdom
will be His on the Day the Trumpet is blown, the Knower of the
Unseen and the Visible. He is the All-Wise, the All-Aware. (Surat
ALLAH IS ALL-POWERFUL
For many years, people have wondered how the universe will end.
Many possibilities spring to mind, but Allah can make it happen
without a cause and all of a sudden. The probabilities revealed
by scientific research constitute a warning and give us the opportunity
to reflect and turn to Allah before that difficult Day comes in
accordance with His will. The believers are certain that the Day
of Judgment will happen at the predetermined time in His presence.
All people will experience it, for they will be in the All-Powerful's
grip, as follows:
Or let you see what We have promised
them. They are completely in Our power. (Surat az-Zukhruf, 42)
Many events can cause Earth's existing order to collapse
and all life to be lost. Furthermore, as time progresses, even
more probable causes are added to the already existing ones. Many
signs indicate that our world is moving rapidly toward its predetermined
end, even if most people deny the existence of the Day of Judgment.
The Qur'an points out this reality in the following verse:
The Hour is coming, but I have concealed
it so that every self can be repaid for its efforts. (Surah Ta
Scientists have reached a consensus, based on scientific
data, that the universe will be destroyed. Newspapers, magazines,
television programs, and other media outlets often inform people
of the latest scientific discoveries. Researchers who are aware
of these facts are looking for ways to prevent such calamities
in order to delay the universe's death. Another area of research
focuses on the probable changes that would take place on Earth
and its effects on life were such a disaster to strike. The resulting
data bears a striking resemblance to many of the events foretold
in the Qur'an
3 George O. Abell,
David Morrison, Sidney C. Wolff, Exploration of the Universe (Saunders
College Publishing: 1991), 612.
4 George Smoot, Show Me God, revised ed., 1997; Fred Heeren, Day
5 George Smoot, San Hose Mercury News, May 12, 1992. Story by
John Noble Wilford of the New York Times.
6 Milliyet (Turkish daily), July 19, 1998.
7 Carl Sagan, Cosmos (New York: Wings Books, 1983), 73.
8 Hurriyet, December 14, 1997.
10 "Greenpeace Documents Glacial Retreat In Melt Zone As International
Climate Treaty Negotiations Resume In Bonn," June 2, 1998; http://archive.greenpeace.org/pressreleases/arctic/1998jun2.html
11 Amy L. Forrester, "The Effects of El Niño on Marine Life,"
Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (December 1997); http://www.csa.com/hottopics/elnino/oview.html.
12 Paul Davies, God and The New Physics (London: Penguin Books,
13 John Gribbin, The Omega Point: The Search for the Missing Mass
and the Ultimate Fate of the Universe, (William Heinemann Ltd.,
14 Bilim Teknik (Science and Technology) (Turkish science journal),
15 "Temperature;" www.shokhirev.com/nikolai/projects/ temperature/temperature.html.
16 Taskin Tuna, Uzayin Sirlari (Secrets of Space), (Istanbul:
Bogazici Yayinlari, 1994), 24.
17 "The Sun," Maryland Energy Administration;
18 Tuna, Uzayin Sirlari, 278.
19 Davies, God and The New Physics, 11.
21 Hurriyet, August 17, 1997.
22 Sagan, Cosmos, 73.
23 Ibid., 74.
24 Ibid., 76.
25 Scientists Fear Asteroid Threats, Telegraph, September 13,
26 Walter Alvarez, T. Rex and Crater of Doom (New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1997), 11.
27 Ibid., 11.
28 "Asteroid on course for near-collision with Earth," CNN.com;
29 Paul Davies, The Last Three Minutes (Basic Books: 1977), 3.
30 Ibid., 1-2.
31 "Astronomers Surprised to Find Elongated
Radio-Emitting Region At Center of Milky Way," National Radio
Astronomy Observatory, 8 August 2003;
32 Milliyet, July 19, 1998.